From 2015 to 2018, about 1.1 million Filipino families were lifted from poverty; in 2018, three million families, or 16.6 percent of the population, remained poor. How many of those families--and millions of others who are just hovering above the poverty line--slid into (deeper) poverty because of COVID19?
The government has readied a "social amelioration program" worth PHP 275 billion (about US$ 5.3 billion) to provide a monthly subsidy of PHP 5,000 to 8,000 (about US$ 100-160) for 18 million affected families and implement other responses to COVID19. To date, about 9.4 million families--mostly those who are in the rolls of the government's conditional cash transfer program--have received their first month subsidy.
This safety net program, which entails massive mobilization of public resources and bureaucracy, is a necessary stop gap. But are these enough? The monthly amounts, for one, are less than the official poverty thresholds, which are about PHP 10,000 (about US$ 200) on average. Apart from that, timing is of the essence, for each day of delay may force families to skip a meal or more: a fact that public servants at all levels are conscious about. Government's action is a good starting point, but it may not be enough.
#Bayanihan para maka-#TawidCovid
Since the crisis struck, civil society has come to the aid of those in the margins since the first weeks of the lock down.
Non-government organizations (NGOs) kicked into action: including the Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP) whose Bayanihan Musikahan live stream concert series has raised PHP 66.7 million (about US$ 1.3 million) to date for much-needed personal protective equipment (PPEs) for health workers and fresh food packs for poor families; The Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation (PDRF) who raised PHP 1 billion (about US$ 20 million) from the business sector for grocery vouchers; and Caritas Manila whose network of parishes served as a crucial delivery system for relief. New groups such as the People for Accountable Governance and Sustainable Acton (PAGASA PH), Urbanismo, and Help from Home have also quickly mobilized volunteers and crowdfunded for much-needed relief.
A survey by the Association of Foundations mapped the various response efforts of 82 civil society organizations (CSOs) and NGOs, including networks and consortia, corporate foundations, faith-based groups, cooperatives, and others. Of the 137 interventions that these organizations have been implementing nationwide, more than a third were food and other forms of relief to vulnerable families as well as front line workers. Many others provided personal protective equipment (PPEs) and other forms of healthcare support, organized fundraising and support mobilization efforts, and helped mediate information and coordinate actions across sectors (see below).
The Association of Foundations survey served not only as font of information on who is doing what and where but also provided a fertile starting point for collaboration across CSOs and NGOs.
Early in April, the Zero Extreme Poverty Philippines 2030 (ZEP 2030) held a meeting of its lead convenors to find opportunities for collaboration amid their individual responses to COVID19. For background, ZEP 2030 includes the biggest CSO coalitions in the Philippines who are working together to tackle poverty. UNDP Philippines' Accelerator Lab team has been collaborating closely with ZEP 2030 to help deepen ZEP 2030's efforts. ZEP leaders expressed how they had to adjust their operations to the new reality. Nearly all the organizations had to declare work-from-home arrangements, put their regular programs and services on a pause, and shift to crisis response mode. What if things get worse--as they already have in the past month since that meeting--would the CSOs and NGOs be able to sustain their efforts?
What's clear is that the pandemic has affected the CSOs themselves as much as it has affected their communities. A ZEP-initiated survey of 121 local NGOs found that about 75 percent of the respondents rated the impact of the pandemic on their operations as high or very high. Still, they carry on as they rated their overall ability to respond to their communities' need at moderately high (4 of 6) on average. While they are weakened by mobility constraints or lack of resources to provide direct help such as food relief or cash aid to their communities, they compensate by actively providing crucial information and playing critical coordination roles with government and non-government sectors on behalf of their communities (see below).
The ZEP2030 survey of local NGOs on the socioeconomic impacts of COVID19 not only confirmed the obvious--that the poorest communities are debilitated especially their work and income--but also surfaced weak signals of how CSOs and NGOs continue to fight on despite the pandemic's negative effects on them.
#Diskarte para maka- #TawidCovid
The pandemic is, in many ways, a natural experiment which forces public institutions, including civil society, to change how they operate. Suddenly, NGO leaders who place a premium in meeting people face-to-face find themselves having video conferences--and have to deal with Zoom bombings too, unfortunately. Community organizers are relying on a free data version of Facebook Messenger to keep in touch with their communities. In some cases, donations, money transfers, and purchases are being made through mobile money and online banking channels.
Even surveying and data gathering--done face to face traditionally--had to be innovated. On their own, CSOs and NGOs launched their online surveys, ran headcounts of families requiring help via call and SMS, and kept chat groups buzzing with information on who's doing what. These have their limits, of course: online surveys, while democratizing survey instruments, carry an inherent bias against those without regular internet access. The members of ZEP 2030, in partnership with UNDP, agreed to collaborate on sharing and making sense of information from these data sets. Moreover, we are trying to find new ways to reach households and assess their needs given mobility and mobile data constraints: a socioeconomic impact assessment survey delivered through chatbots that we developed with startup AI4Gov.